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Selected References

This list includes the references for the published clinical trials from which ECRI extracted data for analysis, references for some general background articles, and Internet sites consulted for the guide. References for an additional 400 sources used in ECRI's evidence report and this guide can be found in the Executive Summary: Bulimia Nervosa: Efficacy of Available Treatments

A brief description of EMDR. [internet]. Watsonville (CA): EMDR Institute, Inc.; 2004 [cited 2005 Nov 6]. [2 p]. Available: http://www.emdr.com/briefdes.htm.

Agras W, Dorian B, Kirkley B. Imipramine in the treatment of bulimia: a double-blind controlled study. Int J Eat Disord 1987;6(1):29-38.

Agras W, Rossiter E, Arnow B, et al. Pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia nervosa: a controlled comparison. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149(1):82-7.

Agras W, Schneider J, Arnow B, et al. Cognitive-behavioral and response-prevention treatments for bulimia nervosa. J Consult Clin Psychol 1989 Apr;57(2):215-21.

Agras W, Walsh T, Fairburn C, et al. A multicenter comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000 May;57(5):459-66.

American Psychiatric Association (APA), Task Force on DSM-IV. First MB, editors. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington (DC): American Psychiatric Press, Inc; 1994 Jan. 886 p.

American Psychiatric Association (APA), Task Force on DSM-IV. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Washington (DC): American Psychiatric Association (APA); 2000. 943 p.

Bachar E. The contributions of self psychology to the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Am J Psychother 1998 Spring;52(2):147-65.

Bachar E, Latzer Y, Kreitler S, et al. Empirical comparison of two psychological therapies. Self psychology and cognitive orientation in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. J Psychother Pract Res 1999 Spring;8(2):115-28.

Bailer U, de Zwaan M, Leisch F, et al. Guided self-help versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 2004 May;35(4):522-37.

Barlow J, Blouin J, Blouin A, et al. Treatment of bulimia with desipramine: a double-blind crossover study. Can J Psychiatry 1988 Mar;33(2):129-33.

Blouin A, Blouin J, Perez E, et al. Treatment of bulimia with fenfluramine and desipramine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1988 Aug;8(4):261-9.

Carruba M, Cuzzolaro M, Riva L, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of moclobemide in bulimia nervosa: a placebo-controlled trial. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2001 Jan;16(1):27-32.

Carter J, Olmsted M, Kaplan A, et al. Self-help for bulimia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 2003 May;160(5):973-8.

Case management practice: definition and philosophy. [internet]. Rolling Meadows (IL): Commission for Case Manager Certification); [cited 2005 Nov 8]. [1 p]. Available: http://www.ccmcertification.org/pages/136body.html.

Cooper P, Steere J. A comparison of two psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa: implications for models of maintenance. Behav Res Ther 1995 Nov;33(8):875-85.

Dorlands Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Edition 28, WB Saunders 1994, Philadelphia, PA

ECRI. Bulimia Nervosa: Efficacy of available treatments. ECRI [evidence report] February 2006. Plymouth Meeting (PA) 656 p. Available online:www.bulimiaguide.org

Esplen M, Garfinkel P. Guided imagery treatment to promote self-soothing in bulimia nervosa. A theoretical rationale. J Psychother Pract Res 1998 Spring;7(2):102-18.

Fairburn C, Jones R, Peveler R, et al . Three psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa. A comparative trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991 May;48(5):463-9.

Fairburn C, Kirk J, O'Connor M, et al. A comparison of two psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa. Behav Res Ther 1986;24(6):629-43.

Faris P, Kim S, Meller W, et al. Effect of decreasing afferent vagal activity with ondansetron on symptoms of bulimia nervosa: a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet 2000 Mar 4;355(9206):792-7.

Field T, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, et al . Bulimic adolescents benefit from massage therapy. Adolescence 1998 Fall;33(131):555-63.

Fluoxetine Bulimia Nervosa Collaborative Study Group. Fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49(2):139-47.

Freeman C, Barry F, Dunkeld-Turnbull J, et al. Controlled trial of psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb 20;296(6621):521-5.

Friedel S, Horro F, Wermter A, et al. Mutation screen of the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF): identification of several genetic variants and association studies in patients with obesity, eating disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005 Jan 5;132(1):96-9.

Frey R. Psychoanalysis. In: Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine [internet]. Gale Group; 2002 Dec 1 [updated 2004 Apr 22].. Available: http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/psychoanalysis.jsp.

Garner D, Garfinkel P, editors. Handbook of treatment of eating disorders. 2nd ed. New York (NY): Guilford Press; 1997. p. 67-93.

Garner D, Rockert W, Davis R, et al. Comparison of cognitive-behavioral and supportive-expressive therapy for bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 1993 Jan;150(1):37-46.

Goldbloom D, Olmsted M, Davis R, et al. A randomized controlled trial of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: short-term outcome. Behav Res Ther 1997 Sep;35(9):803-11.

Goldenberg I, Goldenberg H. Family therapy: an overview. 5th ed. Belmont (CA): Wadsworth/Thompson Learning; 2000. 492 p.

Goldstein D, Wilson M, Thompson V, et al. Long-term fluoxetine treatment of bulimia nervosa. Fluoxetine Bulimia Nervosa Research Group. BJP Rev Books 1995 May;166(5):660-6.

Griffiths R, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Channon-Little L. A controlled evaluation of hypnobehavioural treatment for bulimia nervosa: immediate prepost treatment effects. Eur Eat Disord Rev 1994;2(4):202-20.

Hashimoto K, Koizumi H, Nakazato M, et al. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in eating disorders: recent findings and its pathophysiological implications. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005 May;29(4):499-504.

Hay P, Bacaltchuk J, Stefano S. Psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa and binging. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [database online]. Issue 3. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2004 Jul 19.

Horne R, Ferguson J, Pope H Jr, et al. Treatment of bulimia with bupropion: a multicenter controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 1988;49(7):262-6.

Hoopes S, Reimherr F, Hedges D, et al. Treatment of bulimia nervosa with topiramate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, part 1: improvement in binge and purge measures. J Clin Psychiatry 2003 Nov;64(11):1335-41.

Hsu L, Clement L, Santhouse R, et al. Treatment of bulimia nervosa with lithium carbonate. A controlled study. J Nerv Ment Dis 1991 Jun;179(6):351-5.

Hughes P, Wells L, Cunningham C, et al. Treating bulimia with desipramine. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43(2):182-6.

Huon G, Brown L. Evaluating a group treatment for bulimia. J Psychiatr Res 1985;19(2-3):479-83.

Jacobi C, Dahme B, Dittmann R. Cognitive behavioural, fluoxetine and combined treatment for bulimia nervosa: short and longterm results. Eur Eat Disord Rev 2002;10(3):179-98.

Kanerva R, Rissanen A, Sarna S. Fluoxetine in the treatment of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and eating-related symptoms in bulimia nervosa. Nord Psykiatr Tidsskr 1995;49(4):237-42.

Kennedy S, Goldbloom D, Ralevski E, et al. Is there a role for selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy in bulimia nervosa? A placebo-controlled trial of brofaromine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1993;13(6):415-22.

Kennedy S, Piran N, Warsh J, et al. A trial of isocarboxazid in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.[erratum appears in J Clin Psychopharmacol 1989 Feb;9(1):3]. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1988;8(6):391-6.

Lam R, Goldner E, Solyom L, et al. A controlled study of light therapy for bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 1994 May;151(5):744-50.

Lee N, Rush A. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for bulimia. Int J Eat Disord 1986;5(4):599-615.

Leitenberg H, Rosen J, Gross J, et al. Exposure plus response-prevention treatment of bulimia nervosa. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988 Aug;56(4):535-41.

Marrazzi M, Bacon J, Kinzie J, et al. Naltrexone use in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1995 Sep;10(3):163-72.

Maudsley method: new treatment for anorexia. [internet]. Highland Park (IL): National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD); [cited 2005 Nov 6]. [2 p].

Milano W, Petrella C, Sabatino C, et al. Treatment of bulimia nervosa with sertraline: a randomized controlled trial. Adv Ther 2004 Jul-Aug;21(4):232-7.

Mitchell J, Christenson G, Jennings J, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study of naltrexone hydrochloride in outpatients with normal weight bulimia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1989;9(2):94-7.

Mitchell J, Fletcher L, Hanson K, et al. The relative efficacy of fluoxetine and manual-based self-help in the treatment of outpatients with bulimia nervosa. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2001 Jun;21(3):298-304.

Mitchell J, Groat R. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of amitriptyline in bulimia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1984;4(4):186-93.

Mitchell J, Pyle R, Eckert E, et al. A comparison study of antidepressants and structured intensive group psychotherapy in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47(2):149-57.

Miyasaka K, Hosoya H, Sekime A, et al. Association of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphism with bulimia nervosa in a Japanese population. J Neural Transm. 2005 Dec 16; [Epub ahead of print].

Olmsted M, Kaplan A, Rockert W. Defining remission and relapse in bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2005 Jul;38(1):1-6. Comment in: Int J Eat Disord. 2005 Jul;38(1):7-8.

Pope H Jr, Hudson J, Jonas J, et al. Bulimia treated with imipramine: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Am J Psychiatry 1983;140(5):554-8.

Pope H Jr, Keck P Jr, McElroy S, et al. A placebo-controlled study of trazodone in bulimia nervosa. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1989;9(4):254-9.

Ribases M, Gratacos M, Fernandez-Aranda F, et al. Association of BDNF with restricting anorexia nervosa and minimum body mass index: a family-based association study of eight European populations. Eur J Hum Genet. 2005 Apr;13(4):428-34.

Sabine E, Yonace A, Farrington A, et al. Bulimia nervosa: a placebo controlled double-blind therapeutic trial of mianserin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983;15(Suppl 2):195S-202S.

Safer D, Telch C, Agras W. Dialectical behavior therapy for bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 2001 Apr;158(4):632-4.

Servan-Schreiber D. POINT: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: is psychiatry missing the point? Psychiatr Time 2000 Jul;17(7):1-16.

Simon J, Schmidt U, Pilling S. The health service use and cost of eating disorders. Psychol Med. 2005 Nov;35(11):1543-51.

Slof-Op 't, Landt M, van Furth E, et al. Eating disorders: from twin studies to candidate genes and beyond. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2005 Oct;8(5):467-82.

Sundgot-Borgen J, Rosenvinge J, Bahr R, et al. The effect of exercise, cognitive therapy, and nutritional counseling in treating bulimia nervosa. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002 Feb;34(2):190-5.

Treasure J, Schmidt U, Troop N, et al. First step in managing bulimia nervosa: controlled trial of therapeutic manual. BMJ 1994 Mar 12;308(6930):686-9.

Tsai S. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a possible novel therapeutic approach to eating disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(6):1176-8. Epub 2005 Jul 7.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. Mental Health Parity Act: Despite Federal Standards, Mental Health Benefits Remain Limited. GAO/HEHS-00-95 (Washington, D.C., May 2000)

Walsh B, Fairburn C, Mickley D, et al. Treatment of bulimia nervosa in a primary care setting. Am J Psychiatry 2004 Mar;161(3):556-61.

Walsh B, Gladis M, Roose S, et al. Phenelzine vs placebo in 50 patients with bulimia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988 May;45(5):471-5.

Walsh B, Hadigan C, Devlin M, et al. Long-term outcome of antidepressant treatment for bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148(9):1206-12.

Walsh B, Wilson G, Loeb K, et al. Medication and psychotherapy in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 1997 Apr;154(4):523-31.

What is biofeedback? [internet]. American Cancer Society; 2000 Feb 17 [cited 2005 Oct 31]. [2 p]. Available: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_2_1x_What_is_Biofeedback_.asp.

Williamson D, White M, York-Crowe E, et al. Cognitive-behavioral theories of eating disorders. Behav Modif 2004 Nov;28(6):711-38.

Wilson J, Peebles R, Hardy K, et al. Pro-eating disorder Web site usage and health outcomes in an eating disordered population. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, May 14-17, 2005, Washington. Poster 1823.

Wolf E, Crowther J. An evaluation of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral group interventions for the treatment of bulimia nervosa in women. Int J Eat Disord 1992;11(1):3-15.

Web resources consulted for this Guide
















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Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person engages in binge eating (eating a lot of food in a short time) followed by some type of behavior to prevent weight gain from the food that was eaten. This behavior can take two forms: self-induced vomiting, misuse of enemas, laxatives, diet pills (called purging) and excessive exercise, fasting, or diabetic omission of insulin (called non-purging). Some people with bulimia nervosa may also starve themselves for periods of time before binge eating again. Bulimia nervosa has important mental, emotional, and physical aspects that require consideration during treatment.

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